Locomotive Engineer’s NORAC Recertification Study Guide Part 2
NORAC rules are derived from the General Coda of Federal Regulations

This is the unofficial NORAC rules study guide for engineer recertification. It is based on the Lackawanna Terminal Railway’s Division Notice 5-S-801 dated August 1, 2013. Any errors are strictly those of the author. While the author tries to ensure that there is a correct (or most correct) answer to each question, final interpretation of the rules is the responsibility of the employee and the Lackawanna Terminal Railway Rules Department. The author assumes no responsibility for incorrect answers on either annual or promotion tests given by the Lackawanna Terminal Railway. Rules which are included in both the annual rules test and the triennial engineer's recertification test are in blue.Recertification only rules will be in Red. Annual rules only questions are in Green. For this rules review, rule G is not in effect so curl up around a warm monitor, grab some chips and your NORAC rule book, sip a cup for your favorite brew and take a leisurely scroll through the 2013 NORAC study guide for recertification.

Rule 241, Passing a Stop Signal:

To pass a Stop Signal:
1. A train must have a Form D, line2.
2. A train must have permission before it reaches the stop signal.
3. A train must have verbal permission of the Dispatcher or Operator when authorized by the Dispatcher.
4. A train must have a Bulletin Order item authorizing it to pass a stop signal.

Permission must not be given or accepted:
1. Until the train is stopped at the Stop Signal.
2. Before the train stops at the Stop Signal.
3. Until the Dispatcher knows that the block ahead is clear.
4. Unless the train crew has Out-Of-Service insurance.

A member of the crew must:
1. Go for coffee while permission is being granted.
2. Take a nap so as to be well rested during the moments when the train is passing the Stop Signal.
3. Contact the Dispatcher or Operator and follow his instructions.
4. Quickly apply for Out-Of-Service insurance.

If the position of switches cannot be determined: 
1. The movement cannot be made.
2. The route must be inspected.
3. A crew member must precede the movement on foot.
4. The crew must be issued a Form D, Line 2.

Before giving permission to pass a Stop Signal, the Dispatcher or Operator must determine that:
1. The crew is well rested.
2. Affected appliances are properly positioned, no opposing movements have been authorized, and blocking devices have been applied to protect against opposing movements in 261 territory.
3. The crew has been properly fed.
4. The crew has the appropriate Ford D. Line 2.

After permission has been confirmed the train must operate:
1. At Restricted Speed until the entire train has cleared all interlocking or spring switches and the entire train has passed a more favorable fixed signal, entered non-signaled DCS territory, or entered Rule 562 territory with a Form D authorizing Rule 563.
2. At slow speed until the Engine has passed the Stop Signal.
3. At normal speed.
4. At reduced speed until the entire train has passed the Stop Signal.

Trains with operative cab signals must not increase their speed until they have run one train length or 500 feet (whichever is greater) past a location where a more favorable cab signal is received:
1. In 251 territory only.
2. In 261 territory only.
3. In Cab Signal System (CSS) Territory.
4. None of the above.

When  a train is stopped at a home signal at an Automatic Interlocking and no conflicting movement is evident:
1. The train must remained stopped for at least five minutes, then proceed at normal speed.
2. The train must be governed by the instructions at that location and instructions in the Timetable. 
3. The train must remain stopped until the signal clears.
4. The train can proceed as if a stop and proceed signal were displayed.

When a train is stopped at a signal protecting a movable bridge a qualified employee must determine that the rails are properly lined and the bridge is safe for movement before verbal permission is given for a train to pass the signal:
1. When the Dispatcher is nervous.
2. When the signal cannot be displayed after the bridge has been closed regardless of the bridge lock indication.
3. At any time a bridge unlock indication is received.
4. 2 and 3.

If a Stop Signal is disregarded:
1. The Dispatcher must go off duty before anyone finds out.
2. The Dispatcher must throw the switches in front of the train  to derail it.
3. The Dispatcher must attempt to stop the train and other trains involved and notify the next TBS or interlocking station
4. The Dispatcher must call his mom and ask what to do.

Rule 242, Absent or Imperfectly Displayed Signals:

If a fixed signal is absent from the place where it is usually shown:
1. The movement may proceed according to the last signal seen.
2. The movement must proceed at Restricted speed.
3. The movement must be governed by the most restrictive indication that can be given by that signal.
4. The movement has to stop and the Dispatcher notified without delay to the train.

Imperfectly displayed signals must be:
1. Ignored if they display better that Stop.
2. Must be reported to the Dispatcher or Operator as soon as practical without delay to the train.
3. 1 and 2.
4. All of the above.

Imperfectly displayed signals must be:
1. Ignored because they are imperfect.
2. Regarded as the most restrictive indication that can be given by that signal.
3. Regarded as a Stop signal and the movement must be stopped until the Conductor walks to the next signal which is perfectly displayed.
4. Regarded as a Stop signal.

If the imperfectly displayed signal is a color light signal, position light signal, color position light signal, or a semaphore signal: 
1. It can be ignored.
2. It must be considered a Stop signal and the Dispatcher must be contacted for permission to proceed.
3. It must be considered a stop and proceed in all instances.
4. If only one indication is possible the indication will govern.

If more than one indication is possible for an imperfectly displayed signal that are more favorable than Stop and Proceed:
1. All possibilities must be explored.
2. The dispatched must be consulted as to which indication governs the move.
3. The crew must flip a coin to determine which indication governs.
4. Trains may proceed as though a Restricting Signal were displayed.

Rule 243, Next governing signal

Trains may operate according to the next fixed signal governing the movement when:
1. The next governing signal can be plainly seen.
2. The train is not required by rule or the previous signal to operate at restricted speed.
3. If the train is late.
4. Numbers 1 and 2.

If governed by a signal displaying Limited Clear, Medium Clear, Medium Approach Medium, Medium Approach, Slow Clear, or Slow Approach:
1. The train may accelerate as soon as the head end passes the signal.
2. The speed must not be increased until the entire train is clear of the interlocking or spring switches.
3. The speed may not be increased until the engineer sees that he train is lined for the proper track.
4. The train may accelerate as soon as the next signal is clearly seen.

Signal Rules 282a, 283, 284, 285, 286, 288, 291, 292, 297, 297a, 297c: 
It is suggested that to study the signal aspects and their meanings go to an extremely well done Signal Quizzer at George Karayannopoulas' Helpful Resources For Railroad Engineers and Conductors web site:


Rule 401, Operating in non-signaled DCS territory:

When operating in non-signaled DCS territory, unless otherwise restricted, trains must not exceed: 
1. Restricted Speed. 
2. 30 mph passenger, 30 mph freight. 
3. 40 mph passenger, 50 mph freight. 
4. 70 mph passenger, 60 mph freight.

When operating in non-signaled DCS territory, trains approaching home signals, controlled points and signals at the beginning of ABS territory: 
1. Must go very, very fast. 
2. Must approach prepared to stop unless a distant signal is in service. 
3. Must approach prepared to stop under all conditions. 
4. Must be very, very careful.

If a train is delayed after passing a distant signal: 
1. It must approach the Home Signal or Controlled Point prepared to stop. 
2. It must approach the home signal or controlled point at slow speed. 
3. It can approach the home signal or controlled point according to the aspect displayed on the distant signal. 
4. It must have permission from the Dispatcher to proceed toward the home signal or controlled point.

Rule 402, operating in a specified direction in DCS territory

To make a reverse movement in non-signaled DCS territory, a train authorized by Form D, line 2 to operate in a specific direction must: 
1. Receive another Form D, line 2 or 
2. The train must receive verbal permission from the Dispatcher and proceed at Restricted Speed  to the point authorized but no further than the last point it was reported clear. 
3. A crew member must be must be stationed on the leading end and take action to control the movement of the train. 
4. If the movement is against the current of traffic, the Dispatcher may verbally authorize it to operate with the current of traffic according to ABS rules after assuring the track to be used is clear of opposing movements. 
5. All of the above.

A train authorized by Form D, line 2 to operate in a specific direction may make a reverse move within the limits of the same block in signaled DCS territory: 
1) Will be governed by ABS Rule 501 "Reverse move within the limits of the same block".. 
2) By moving the reverser and throttle. 
3) On the Conductor's signal. 
4) None of the above.

To make a reverse movement beyond the limits of the same block in signaled DCS territory, a train authorized by Form D, line 2 to operate in a specific direction must: 
1. Continue to its final destination. 
2. Not re-enter that block without verbal permission. 
3. Receive a new Form D, line 2. 
4. Not re-enter that block without a train order.

When a train operating in a specific direction clears the limits of it's Form D, line 2: 
1. It can reenter the limits if the Form D, line 2 if the crew has not called in the clear with the Dispatcher. 
2. It cannot reenter the limits of the Form D, line 2 unless given a verbal or hand signal from the conductor. 
3. The Form D, line 2 authority is over filled. 
4. The Form D, line 2 authority is fulfilled.

When a train leaves the track specified in it's Form D, line 2 authority at a hand operated switch and the switch has been restored to the normal position: 
1. The train can reenter the specified track if the crew has not called in clear to the Dispatcher. 
2. The train cannot reenter the specified track without a verbal or hand signal from the conductor. 
3. The movement has cleared and a new Form D must be issued for further movement. 
4. The movement has cleared and the crew must go off duty.

Rule 403, Operating in both directions in DCS territory:

A train authorized by Form D, line 2 to operate in both directions: 
1. Must report to the Dispatcher before he changes direction within the limits of the Form D. 
2. Must mark the time on his Form D each time he reverses direction. 
3. Has exclusive occupancy of the track and may operate in either direction. 
4. Is in deep trouble because operating in both direction requires two Form D’s.

Once a train has been issued a Form D, line 2 for movement in both directions, the Dispatcher: 
1. Can allow other trains into the limits of the Form D with permission of the train crew who "owns" the Form D authority. 
2. Can allow track equipment into the limits of the Form D, line 2 with permission of the crew that "owns" the Form D authority. 
3. Must not authorize other movements into the line 2 limits. 
4. Must not authorize the train to leave the limits of the Form D authority until the Form D, line 4 is canceled.

Once a Form D, line 2 has been issued for movement in both directions: 
1. The Form D authority is good for the calendar day. 
2. The Form D authority is good until midnight after it is issued. 
3. The Form D authority is good until canceled. 
4. The Form D authority is good until the movement is complete.

Switches within the limits of the Form D, line 2 authority: 
1. Can be left open after the crew is finished with the Form D authority 
2. Can be left open but must be locked in the normal position before the Form D, line 2 is canceled. 
3. Must be restored to the normal position after each use. 
4. Must not be used without permission of the Dispatcher.

Rule 500, Occupying or Fouling ABS Territory:

A train must not enter or foul ABS territory without:
1. The crew being well rested.
2. The crew being well fed.
3. The crew being well rested and well fed.
4. A proceed indication on a controlled signal or verbal permission from the Dispatcher or Operator.

When verbal permission is given to enter Rule 261 territory:
1. It must be accompanied by a Form D, line 2.
2. It must include the Conductor's and Engineer's first name and last initial.
3. It must contain the number of cars in the consist.
4. The permission must include an authorized direction of movement.

Crew responsibility at a hand operated switches after permission has been received to enter ABS territory:

At a switch(es) not equipped with a bolt lock or electric lock:
1. The crew can open the switch and proceed onto the main track.
2. The crew must promptly operate the switch(es) and wait 5 minutes before starting the movement.
3. The crew must promptly operate the switch(es) then wait 10 before starting the movement.
4. The crew must wait for the Dispatcher to alert all operating trains about the movement.

At switch(es) equipped with a bolt lock but not an electric lock a crew member:
1. Must promptly operate the bolt lock but wait 5 minutes before starting the movement.
2. Must promptly operate the bolt lock but wait 10 minutes before starting the move.
3. Must wait 5 minutes before operating the bolt lock then begin the move immediately.
4. Must wait until the next train passes then operate the bolt lock and begin the move immediately. 

At switch(es) equipped with an electric lock:
1. Train movement can begin as soon as the switch(es) have been properly lined.
2. Train movement can begin after waiting five minutes after activating the electric lock.
3. Train movement can begin after the crew is sure no trains are approaching.
4. Train movement can begin immediately after lunch.

The Dispatcher or Operator may relieve crew members from the 5 minute waiting period when the Dispatcher:
1. Is ready to go off duty.
2. Has determined that no train is moving or has been authorized to move in the direction of the switch(es) from the last TBS, Interlocking, or Control Point.
3. When no one is looking.
4. If his out-of-service insurance is paid up.

When switch(es) have been lined for movement the crew must:
1. Break for lunch.
2. Fill out a penalty time card.
3. Immediately notify the Dispatcher or Operator.
4. Continue the movement to the next favorable signal, stop, then call the Dispatcher.

A train entering between signals in ABS territory must:
1. Leave the switch in the reverse position.
2. Continue movement to the next favorable signal at no less than 30 MPH.
3. Only proceed in the specified direction of traffic.
4. Proceed at Restricted Speed until the entire train passes the next block signal or according to cab signal rules and signals if in cab signal territory.

Rule 501, Reverse move within the limits of the same block:

A train may make a reverse move, within the same block, under ABS rules: 
1. When protected by a crew member flagging against an opposing movement at restricted speed or authorized by the Dispatcher who will provide protection. 
2. By moving the reverser and throttle.. 
3. On the Conductor's signal. 
4. None of the above.

Rule 502, Reverse movement beyond the limits of the block:

Where rule 251 is in effect, trains having passed beyond the limits of a block: 
1. Must continue to its final destination. 
2. May not re-enter that block without verbal permission. 
3. May not re-enter that block without Form D, line two (2) authority as prescribed by non-signaled DCS rules. 
4. Must not re-enter that block without a train order.

Where rule 261 is in effect, a train passing beyond the limits of a block must not re-enter that block: 
1. Except when powered by a locomotive. 
2. Except with permission of the Conductor. 
3. Except with a Form D, line thirteen (13) authority. 
4. Except with verbal permission of the Dispatcher.

Before a Dispatcher can give permission for a reverse move, where rule 261 is in effect, he must: 
1. Be well fed. 
2. Determine the block is clear and that signals and blocking devices are applied to the affected track to prevent opposing movements. 
3. Determine the track has no obstructions. 
4. Determine that the crew is qualified.

A reverse move where rule 261 is in effect must operate at: 
1. Track speed for the entire movement. 
2. Slow speed for the entire movement. 
3. Restricted speed for the entire movement. 
4. Restricted speed until governed by a more favorable signal.

Rule 503, Train Movement against the Current of Traffic at an Interlocking:

The Dispatcher can verbally authorized movement against the current of traffic:
1. At an Interlocking.
2. At a hand thrown switch within yard limits.
3. In 251 territory.
4. Five minutes before he retires from the railroad.

When authorized the movement is limited: 
1. To the next signal facing in the direction of the movement.
2. To the next mile post or station.
3. To the To the next signal facing the direction of eventual travel..
4. One train length beyond the Home Signal.

Before authorizing such movement the Dispatcher must determine that:
1. His out-of-service insurance is up-to-date.
2. He is about to be relieved at shift change.
3. The track to be used is clear of opposing movements, signals governing opposing movements are in the Stop position, and blocking devices are applied to protect against opposing movements.
4. None of the above.

Rule 504, Delay in a block:

Rule 504 does not apply:
1. To trains that have cab signals in service for the direction of movement or have had a cab signal failure in 562 territory.
2. To lite engine movements and extra trains.
3. To scheduled trains.
4. All of the above.

Trains making stops other than station stops:
1. Must proceed at Restricted Speed.
2. Slow Speed.
3. Medium Speed.
4. Maximum authorized Speed for the territory they are in.

A train making stops other than station stops may resume the speed authorized by the last signal received when:
1. The engineer sees that there are no trains or track cars in front of his train.
2. The next signal is seen to display a proceed signal indication and the track is known to be clear to the next signal.
3. The train is behind schedule.
4. The train is the crews going home train.

If a push-pull train that has passed a distant signal makes a station stop or reduces speed to less than 10 MPH, it must:
1. Approach the Home Signal prepared to stop.
2. Not exceed 40 MPH unless governed by a slower speed.
3. May proceed at the maximum authorized track speed if he/she feels lucky.
4. 1 and 2.

The train may resume the speed authorized by the distant signal:
1. If the engineer feels lucky.
2. If the engineer has a death wish.
3. When the Home Signal is seen to display a proceed signal.
4. When the weather permits.

Rule 553, Cab signal changes between fixed signals

When a cab signal changes to Restricting between fixed signals: 
1. The engineer must dump the train. 
2. The engineer must dump the train and run back through the cars yelling: EMERGENCY, EMERGENCY, EMERGENCY! 
3. The engineer must immediately reduce speed to Medium speed. 
4. The engineer must take action at once to reduce to Restricted speed.

If an interlocking signal requires Medium or Limited Speed and the cab signal changes to a more favorable aspect: 
1. The cab signal system has failed. 
2. The engineer can ignore the cab signal since the more restrictive indication applies. 
3. Speed must not be increased until the train has run it's length. 
4. Speed can be increased as soon as the more the cab signal indication changes.

If the cab signal changes from a Restricting to a more favorable aspect: 
1. Speed cannot be increased until the cab signal conforms to two wayside signal. 
2. Speed can be increased as soon as the cab signal indication changes. 
3. Speed cannot be increased until the train has run it's length or 500 feet, whichever is greater. 
4. Speed cannot be increased until the cab signal conforms to the next wayside signal.

If the cab signal changes from Clear to Approach Medium between fixed signals: 
1. Trains must immediately reduce speed to Restricting as there is no Approach Medium cab signal aspect. 
2. Trains must immediately reduce speed to Limited Speed and further reduce to Medium Speed if the next signal displays an aspect requiring Medium Speed. 
3. Trains must immediately reduce speed to Medium Speed. 
4. Trains may continue at Normal Speed until the cab signal changes to Approach.

If the cab signal does not conform the fixed signal at the entrance to a block and the fixed signal is more restrictive: 
1. The cab signal will govern movement through the entire block. 
2. The fixed signal will govern movement until the cab signal conforms. 
3. The fixed signal will govern movement through the entire block. 
4. The cab signal is considered failed and the Dispatcher must be notified.

Rule 554, Movement with inoperative cab signals, speed control, or automatic train stop

The movement of a train equipped with cab signals, speed control, or automatic train stop not in operative condition for the direction of movement: 
1. Is encouraged. 
2. Is prohibited unless it delays the train. 
3. Is not a good idea. 
4. Is prohibited unless the failure occurs after the engine leaves it's initial terminal.

When cab signal, speed control, or automatic train stop fails enroute, the engineer must: 
1. Operate the train according to fixed signal indication, not exceeding forty (40) MPH. 
2. Not pass a stop and proceed or restricting without permission of the Dispatcher. 
3. Notify the Conductor and Dispatcher as soon as possible without delay to the train and consider the failed apparatus as inoperative until repaired tested and found to be functioning properly. 
4. All the above.

The Train Dispatcher must inform Train Dispatchers of connecting districts, divisions, or railroad when: 
1. It is time for lunch. 
2. They are being relieved. 
3. The telephones are not working. 
4. A train experiences a cab signal, speed control, or automatic train stop failure enroute.

Rule 556, Dispatcher's authorization for movement

Rule 556 applies to:
1. Movement authorized by the Dispatcher as provided for in Rule 550, and Rule 554, or Rule 561.
2. Movement authorized by the Yardmaster as provided in Rules 505 and Rule 506 or Rule 561.
3. Movement authorized by Rule 1273 and Rule 1275 or Rule 561..
4. All of the above.

When instructed by the Dispatcher, a train whose cab signals have failed: 
1. May proceed at normal speed, governed by faith,
2. May proceed at normal speed not exceeding 79 MPH, fixed signals and cab signals (if operative) govern. 
3. May proceed at normal speed to the next siding to clear up. 
4. May proceed under flag protection.

A train whose cab signals have failed:
1. Must remain standing until the cab signals are repaired.
2. Must detrain all passengers and move at Restricted Speed to the nearest repair point.
3. Must not pass a signal displaying Restricting, Stop and Proceed, or Stop signal unless authorized by the Dispatcher.
4. May cut out the cab signals an proceed normally.

A Dispatcher must not grant permission to a train whose cab signals have failed to: 
1. Pass go and collect $200.00 
2. Pass a Stop signal, Stop and Proceed, or Restricting unless they determine the block to be entered is not occupied. 
3. Go to lunch early. 
4. Take the rest of the day off.

In an emergency, the Dispatcher may:
1. Go home early.
2. Authorize normal movement.
3. Panic and not answer the radio.
4. Authorized movement into an occupied block.

Rule 562, Movement in territory where cab signals are used without fixed automatic block signals

The requirements of rule 562 apply in territory: 
1. Designated by Form D, line 2. 
2. Designated by Timetable or Bulletin Order where cab signals are used without fixed automatic block signals. 
3. Designated by Form D, line 13. 
4. Where weather conditions will not allow an engineer to clearly see the wayside signals.

In territory where rule 562 is in effect: 
1. Cab signal rules will not apply. 
2. Interlocking rules will not apply. 
3. Rules 554 and 556 will not apply. 
4. Rules 550 and 551 will not apply.

Rule 562a, Signal indications

Where Rule 562 is in effect: 
1. Interlocking and Control Point signals will govern movement within interlockings limits and through Control Points only. 
2. Distant signals , where in service, will govern approach to home signals. 
3. Movement will be governed by cab signals between fixed signals. 
4. All of the above.

If the cab signal and fixed signal do not conform when a train passes an Interlocking or Control Point signal:
1. The more restrictive signal will govern movement through the Interlocking.
2. The interlocking signal will govern.
3. The mean difference between the two indications will govern.
4. The train must operate at Restricted Speed until a more favorable signal is passed.

Once a train clears the Interlocking or Control Point:
1. The train may resume maximum authorized speed for that territory.
2. The movement will be governed by fixed signal indication.
3. The movement will be governed by cab signal indication.
4. The speed will be increased to the maximum that will make up lost time.

Rule 562b, Reverse movements:

Where Rule 562 is in effect, reverse movement must not be made: 
1. Without a hand signal from a crew member, proceeding at Restricted speed.. 
2. Without a Form D, line 2 and must proceed at Restricted speed. 
3. Without verbal permission of the Dispatcher and must proceed at Restricted speed. 
4. Without visibly checking to see that there are no following movements.

Rule 562c, Failure of Cab Signals:

The movements of a train equipped with cab signals not in operative condition for the direction of movement is: 
1. Prohibited at all times. 
2. Prohibited except when "Simon says". 
3. Prohibited except when failure occurs after the engine leaves it's initial terminal. 
4. Prohibited except when the crew has a Form D, line 2 for movement against the current of traffic.

Under Rule 562, If the Cab signals fail enroute, the engineer must: 
1. Stop the train until the cab signals are fixed. 
2. Notify the Dispatcher and Conductor as soon as possible without delay to the train. 
3. Reduce speed to less than 20 MPH until the train reaches it's final terminal. 
4. Run under rule 554 until the cab signal apparatus can be repaired.

Under Rule 562, Trains on which the cab signals have failed must: 
1. Operate at Restricted Speed unless governed by a "Clear to the next Interlocking" signal or a Form D, Line 13 authorizing Rule 563. 
2. Must stop until someone explains the above rule to the crew. 
3. Proceed to the next station and discharge all the passengers then proceed at Restricted speed to the next maintenance point to repair the cab signals 
4. Never enter Rule 562 territory.

Once the cab signals have been considered to have failed: 
1. They must be considered inoperative until they conform to the next interlocking signal. 
2. They must be considered failed until they conform to two interlocking signals in a row. 
3. Consider the failed apparatus as inoperative until they have been repaired, tested, and found to be operating properly. 
4. All of the above.

Conductors of trains approaching 562 territory with inoperative cab signals:
1. Must leave the train at the station just prior to entering 562 territory.
2. Must work on his statement.
3. Must call his union representative.
4. Must remind the engineer of the requirements of the applicable rule when the train is two (2) miles prior to the Rule 562 territory..

Rule 562d, Failure of speed control/automatic train stop, with cab signals still working:

The movement of trains equipped with speed control or automatic train stop not in operative condition for the direction of movement is prohibited except: 
1. When it would delay a train or cost money. 
2. When the failure occurs after the mechanical forces have gone home. 
3. When the FRA is not on the property. 
4. When the failure occurs after the engine leaves it's initial terminal.

If the speed control and/or automatic strain stop fails enroute, but the cab signals remain operative, the Engineer must: 
1. Notify the Dispatcher and Conductor as soon as possible without delay to the train. 
2. Not exceed 40 MPH unless governed by a "Clear to the next block" signal or a Form D, line 13 authorizing Rule 563. 
3. Consider the apparatus failed until the engine has been repaired, tested, and found to be functioning properly. 
4. 1, 2 and 3.

Rule 562e, Engineer not on the leading end:

A train operating with the Engineer on other than the leading end of the movement must: 
1. Operate very, very carefully. 
2. Must operate at Restricted Speed unless governed by a "Clear to the next Interlocking" signal or a Form D. Line 13 authorizing Rule 563. 
3. Not proceed unless the Engineer has Out-of-Service insurance. 
4. Not proceed until the Conductor has been awakened.

Rule 562f, Wayside cab signal equipment not operative in 562 territory:

When the field part of the CSS is inoperative: 
1. Trains must stop until the system is fixed. 
2. Trains with operative cab signals may be authorized by the Dispatcher to operate according to Rule 280a "Clear to the next interlocking". 
3. Trains with operative cab signals may proceed to the next interlocking if the Engineer feels "lucky". 
4. None of the above.

The Dispatcher must inform trains:
1. Where to get the best breakfast.
2. Of the limits of the CSS outage and interlocking(s) where Rule 280a will be displayed.
3. Of the amount of delay they must report.
4. To discharge all passengers and deadhead the train to the last station passed.

Trains must approach interlockings where rule 280a can be displayed:
1. Prepared to stop.
2. At the maximum speed allowed by cab signal indication.
3. Very carefully.
4. All off the above.


If a Rule 280a cannot be displayed:
 
1. The Dispatcher will be fired. 
2. The trains must remain where they are standing. 
3. Trains must contact the Dispatcher and receive a Form D, line 6 (and line 2) substituting DCS rule for ABS rules or Form D, Line 13 to operate at Restricted Speed to the next Interlocking. 
4. All of the above.

Rule 563, Form D Authorization for movement in 562 Territory:

When a "Clear to the Next Interlocking" signal cannot be displayed, trains approaching or operating in rule 562 territory, that experience a cab signal, speed control, or automatic train stop failure: 
1. Must not proceed until the defects are repaired. 
2. Must receive verbal permission from the Dispatcher to proceed. 
3. May proceed when authorized by Form D, Line 13 according to Rule 563. 
4. May proceed if no conflicting moves are seen.

Trains receiving a Form D, Line 13 to proceed under rule 563 must: 
1. Proceed not exceeding 70 MPH. 
2. Approach Home Signals Prepared to stop.. 
3. Pass no non-interlocked facing point switches unless properly lined and pass over no grade crossings unless protection is properly operating unless otherwise instructed by Form D, Line 13. 
4. All of the above. 
5. None of the above.

Rule 612, Reversing Direction within an Interlocking:

To reverse direction within an interlocking the train must:
1. Have the proper interlocking signal or permission of the Dispatcher or Operator.
2. Be completely within the limits of the interlocking.
3. Get permission prior to entering the interlocking.
4. All of the above.

Rule 613, Derailment or Damage:

If there is a derailment or damage occurs to the track or interlocking:
1. The train crew should run away.
2. The Dispatcher should go to lunch.
3. The Dispatcher must be notified.
4. The Dispatcher will not want to know anything.

No movement may be permitted until:
1. The Dispatcher has been removed from service.
2. The train crew has been removed from service.
3. All parts of the Interlocking and track that may have been damaged have been inspected and are confirmed safe for movement.
4. All of the above.

Rule 705, Radio Transmission and Reception Procedures:

Before Transmitting on a radio the employee must:
1. Be able to speak fluently in Spanish.
2. Must make sure his radio has batteries.
3. Shout loudly into the microphone.
4. Listen to ensure that the channel on which he intends to transmit is not in use.

All transmissions must be repeated by the employee receiving them except:
1. Those that make no sense.
2. Those that only affect the movement of one train.
3. Transmissions used in yard service or do not contain information, instructions, or advice that could affect the safety of a railroad operation.
4. Numbers 1 and 2.

Employees must insure that:
1. All radios on the railroad are set to the same channel.
2. Radio contact has been made with the proper persons and all conversations with them heard, understood, and acknowledged..
3. They are properly rested before transmitting.
4. Their radios are not use to chock wheels on passenger cars.

Except for emergency communications, any radio transmission that is not fully understood:
1. Can be acted upon if it is partially understood.
2. Shall not be acted upon.
3. Must be repeated three time to make sure everyone understands it.
4. Must be written down and discussed by the crew in a job briefing.

An Employee receiving a radio call:
1. Must acknowledge the call immediately unless doing so would interfere with safety.
2. Must acknowledge the call immediately even if doing so would interfere with safety.
3. Must write down the message then repeat it back to the sender.
4. Must immediately act upon it as it is being received.

Rule 708, Radio Messages, Content and Code Words:

When originating and initially responding to a radio call, employees must:
1. Clear their throats.
2. Click the transmission button multiple times.
3. Identify their employing railroad, base station, wayside station, or yard station by name, or identify their radio unit.
4. None of the above.

Identifying the employee's radio may include:
1. Schedule number if on a scheduled train.
2. Symbol or engine number if an extra train, TC if on a track car.
3. Other appropriate mobile unit identification. 
4. All of the above.
5. None of the above.

"Roger":
1. The name of the engineer.
2. The message has been received and understood.
3. The instructions have been repeated correctly.
4. Numbers 2 and 3.

"over":
1. The assignment is over.
2. The close of each transmission to which a response is expected.
3. The employee is anxious to get over on the Dispatcher.
4. All of the above.

"Out":
1. The employee is unconscious.
2. The employee has left the building.

3. At the close of a transmission in which a response is not necessary.
4. All of the above.

"Emergency":
1. The employee has to go to the bathroom really, really badly.
2. Transmitted three times to obtain use of the radio channel when ordering lunch.
3. Transmitted three times to obtain use of the radio channel to report conditions dangerous to train movements.
4. All of the above.

Rule 709, Prohibited Transmissions:

Employees must not knowingly transmit:
1. Any false distress communication.
2. Any unnecessary, irrelevant, or unidentified communication.
3. Any obscene, indecent, or profane remark.
4. All of the above.

Rule 710, Radio identification in the yard:

When positive identification is achieved in connection with switching, classification, and similar operations wholly within a yard, fixed or mobile units may use:
1. Obscene gestures.
2. Written messages.
3. Cell phones.
4. Short identification after the initial transmission and acknowledgement.

Such messages must include:
1. The lunch order.
2. Obscene language.
3. Engine or unit number.
4. Girlfriend's telephone numbers.

If positive exchange of communications continues without substantial interruption, positive identification must be repeated:
1. once a day.
2. Every four hours.
3. Every hour.
4. Every 15 minutes.


Rule 711, Radio communications instead of hand signals:

When using a radio instead of hand signals, employees giving instruction: 
1. Must maintain continuous contact with employee receiving instructions. 
2. Must maintain continuous contact with the Dispatcher. 
3. Must maintain continuous contact with the ground. 
4. Must specify a distance to be traveled not exceeding the distance known to be clear.

The movement must stop: 
1. When the engineer gets hungry. 
2. In one half the specified distance unless additional instructions are received. 
3. Don't pay attention to answers #1 and #2. 
4. All the above.

Names of fixed signals affecting the movement must be: 
1. Communicated to the Dispatcher. 
2. Communicated to the Brakeman. 
3. Communicated to the Trainmaster. 
4. Communicated to the Engineer.

If instructions are not understood or radio contact is lost, the movement: 
1. Can continue until radio contact is restored. 
2. Can continue, the last instruction will govern. 
3. Must be stopped immediately. 
4. Must stop until a hand signal is seen.

If the means of communications is changed: 
1. The crew will know after the crash. 
2. The engineer will note the change and the move can continue without stopping. 
3. No movement can be made until all crew members have been notified by Fedex. 
4. No movement can be made until all crew members have been notified

Movement of track cars

Rule 802, Rules and signal:

ABS rules, DCS rules, and numbered automatic block signals:
1. Apply to all track car movements.
2. Do not apply to the movement of track cars.
3. Can be ignored it the train is late.
4. Do not apply to the movement of track cars.

Track cars must approach Interlocking signals, control point signals, and unnumbered automatic block signals:
1. With trepidation.
2. After checking with the foreman to see if he will take the blame for an incident.
3. Prepared to stop.
4. As if they were not there.

Where ABS and DCS rules are in effect:
1. Form D, line 2 must be obtained before track cars are placed or operated on the track.
2. Verbal permission from the Dispatcher must be obtained.
3. Verbal permission from the track foreman must be obtained.
4. Form D, line 3 must be obtained.

Three exceptions to the above rules are:
1. Verbal permission of the Dispatcher for track car movements within yard limits.
2. Track car movements one track car length at Interlockings one track car length into ABS or DCS territory.
3. Track car movements within the working limits.
4. All of the above.

 

Return to the NORAC Recertification Guide, Part I

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